Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It contains thousands of compounds that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In addition, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent AhR ligand, has been shown to cause cardiotoxic effects in several in vivo models. Although induction of CYP1 family is the most important effect of AhR activation, the role of CYP1 induction in mediating the cardiotoxic effect of TCDD is usually overlooked. Therefore, we investigated whether AhR activation causes a hypertrophic effect in H9c2 cells and we related this effect to changes in CYP gene expression. In the current study, the cardiac derived H9c2 cells were treated with two AhR ligands, TCDD and β-naphthoflavone (BNF), for 24 and 48 h. The expression of the hypertrophic markers, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and several CYP genes were measured by real-time PCR. Treatment of H9c2 cells with TCDD or BNF for 24 h caused a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP4A1; however, there was no change in the expression of other genes. On the other hand, treatment of the cells with TCDD or BNF for 48 h caused a significant induction of the hypertrophic markers, ANP and BNP, and several CYP genes such as CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2J3, and CYP4F4 parallel to a significant increase in the cell surface area. Neither TCDD nor BNF increased the oxidative stress in H9c2 cells at all concentrations tested. Interestingly, resveratrol, an AhR antagonist, protected the cells from TCDD-induced hypertrophy. In conclusion, AhR ligands caused a hypertrophic effect in H9c2 cells which was associated with induction of several CYP genes which can be prevented by resveratrol.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Alberta, NWT, and Nunavut to A.O.S.E. B.N.M.Z. is the recipient of Egyptian Government Scholarship. We would like to thank Dr. John Seubert and Mr. Haitham El-Sikhry for their help with the phase contrast microscopy.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Cytochrome P450s
- H9c2 cells