A combined QM/MM approach to protein-ligand interactions: Polarization effects of the HIV-1 protease on selected high affinity inhibitors

Christian Hensen, Johannes C. Hermann, Kwangho Nam, Shuhua Ma, Jiali Gao, Hans Dieter Höltje

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations

Abstract

HIV-1 protease inhibitors are one of the two widely used therapeutic agents for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. The investigation of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor interactions can provide further insight for developing new compounds that are still required due to the growing problem of drug resistance. To this end, a combined QM/MM approach was used to determine electrostatic and polarization interactions on three high affinity inhibitors, nelfinavir, mozenavir, and tipranavir. The present computational results show that explicit treatment of the polarization effect is particularly important since it can contribute as much as one-third of the total electrostatic interaction energy. Further, an amino acid decomposition analysis was applied to determine contributions of individual residues to the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. It was found that the 4-hydroxy-dihydropyrone substructure of tipranavir is especially suited for extended charge delocalization by interacting with the catalytic aspartates and isoleucines of the HIV-1 protease. The calculated electron density difference maps reaffirm and provide a means of visualizing these results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6673-6680
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume47
Issue number27
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 30 2004

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