Background: The adherence rate to National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations regarding inguinal lymph nodes dissection (ILND) in high grade T1 (G3T1) and T2-4 squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (SCCP) is not known. We assessed ILND rates in a North American cohort. Materials and Methods: The 17 registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database included 868 patients with SCCP, diagnosed between 1988 and 2006. Analyses consisted of univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Overall, 27.6% of patients underwent an ILND. ILND rates were directly proportional with T stage: 19.0%, 30.5%, 30.6%, and 32.6% for, respectively, G3T1, T2, T3, and T4 SCCP (chi-square trend, P = 0.01). ILND rates also increased over time and were 19.3, 27.3, 30.7, and 30.8% for respectively, 1988-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2003, and 2004-2006 periods (chi-square trend, P = 0.03). Finally, ILND rates decreased with patient age and were 42.6, 33.2, 24.7, and 7.3% for, respectively, patients aged >57, 58-68, 69-78 and ≥79 years of age (chi-square trend, P < 0.001). All 3 variables (T-stage, year of primary tumor excision and patient age) achieved independent predictor status in multivariable analyses. Conclusions: The overall rate of ILND is low. Nonetheless, there is an upward trend over time. Our data indicate that the adherence to the NCI ILND guidelines is suboptimal. In consequence, ILNDs should be more strongly encouraged.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT Pierre I. Karakiewicz is partially supported by the University of Montreal Health Center Urology Specialists, Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Quebec, the University of Montreal Department of Surgery and the University of Montreal Health Center (CHUM) Foundation. Rodolphe Thuret is partially supported by the Association Franc¸aise d’Urologie (AFU).