A dual-hop virtual MIMO architecture based on hybrid differential spatial modulation

Meng Zhang, Miaowen Wen, Xiang Cheng, Liuqing Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


In this paper, we propose a novel virtual multi-input-multi-output (VMIMO) architecture to convey information from the source node (SN) to the destination node (DN) via multiple relay nodes (RNs). As it is built on dual-hop networks with differential spatial modulation (DSM), we call it dual-hop hybrid DSM (DH-HDSM). In order to harvest the diversity provided by the SN and reduce the complexity at the RNs, DH-HDSM forms a precoding aided DSM pattern in the first hop and applies incoherent detection in a centralized or distributed manner at the RNs. Based on the decode-and-forward protocol, DSM transmission is carried out in the second hop and achieves high energy efficiency via statistical single RN activation at any time instant. We analyze the performance of DH-HDSM in terms of the average bit error probability and make comparisons with dual-hop hybrid spatial modulation (DH-HSM) and differential VMIMO systems with either a single relay or best relay selection. Theoretical results and Monte Carlo simulations confirm that DH-HDSM outperforms DH-HSM and other differential relay schemes in terms of error performance when the DN is equipped with multiple antennas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7496979
Pages (from-to)6356-6370
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61571020 and Grant 61501190, in part by the National 973 Project under Grant 2013CB336700, in part by the National 863 Project under Grant SS2015AA011306, in part by the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission through the Major Project under Grant D151100000115004, in part by the Open Research Fund of National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southeast University, under Grant 2016D03, and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant CNS-1343189.


  • differential modulation
  • precoding
  • relay
  • spatial modulation

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