This paper presents a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) model enriched with a buckling-type criterion for progressive spalling. In the first part of the paper, a general fully coupled multi-phase THM model describing the behaviour of concrete at moderate and high temperatures is presented. Then the spalling criterion and its numerical implementation in the framework of the finite element method are presented. Finally, a simple 1D numerical example will illustrate the effectiveness of the implemented numerical approach.
- Finite elements
- High temperature
- Thermo-hydro-mechanical model