A Hierarchical Integration of Normal and Abnormal Personality Dimensions: Structure and Predictive Validity in a Heterogeneous Sample of Psychiatric Outpatients

Timothy A. Allen, Colin G. DeYoung, R. Michael Bagby, Bruce G. Pollock, Lena C. Quilty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hierarchical, quantitative models of psychopathology focus primarily on higher-order constructs, whereas less is known about the structure and content comprising lower-order dimensions of psychopathology. Here, we address this gap in the literature by using targeted factor analysis to integrate the 25 maladaptive facet-level traits of the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder–Fifth edition and the 10 aspect-level traits of the normal personality hierarchy within a sample of 198 psychiatric outpatients. A 10-factor solution replicated previous work, with each of the 10 aspects primarily characterizing only one factor. In addition, the 10 factors differentially predicted a range of diagnoses, including alcohol use disorder, major depression, panic disorder, social anxiety, and borderline and avoidant personality disorders. Our results suggest that research on the development, causes, and structure of lower-order traits within the normal personality hierarchy may serve as an important guide to research on the causes and structure of maladaptive personality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)643-656
Number of pages14
JournalAssessment
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9487-9233 Allen Timothy A. 1 DeYoung Colin G. 2 Bagby R. Michael 3 4 Pollock Bruce G. 3 4 Quilty Lena C. 3 4 1 Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA 2 University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA 3 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Timothy A. Allen, 100 North Bellefield Avenue, Room 756B, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Email: allenta2@upmc.edu 11 2019 1073191119887442 © The Author(s) 2019 2019 SAGE Publications Hierarchical, quantitative models of psychopathology focus primarily on higher-order constructs, whereas less is known about the structure and content comprising lower-order dimensions of psychopathology. Here, we address this gap in the literature by using targeted factor analysis to integrate the 25 maladaptive facet-level traits of the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder–Fifth edition and the 10 aspect-level traits of the normal personality hierarchy within a sample of 198 psychiatric outpatients. A 10-factor solution replicated previous work, with each of the 10 aspects primarily characterizing only one factor. In addition, the 10 factors differentially predicted a range of diagnoses, including alcohol use disorder, major depression, panic disorder, social anxiety, and borderline and avoidant personality disorders. Our results suggest that research on the development, causes, and structure of lower-order traits within the normal personality hierarchy may serve as an important guide to research on the causes and structure of maladaptive personality. personality traits personality disorder Big Five dimensional psychopathology Canadian Biomarker Integration Network in Depression Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute https://doi.org/10.13039/100010524 Ontario Brain Institute https://doi.org/10.13039/100008914 edited-state corrected-proof Author’s Note Timothy A. Allen is now affiliated with University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Funding The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The current investigation was supported by operating funds from the Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute. Trainee support to TA was provided through the Canadian Biomarker Integration Network in Depression, an Integrated Discovery Program carried out in partnership with, and financial support from, the Ontario Brain Institute, an independent nonprofit corporation, funded partially by the Ontario government. ORCID iD Timothy A. Allen https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9487-9233 Supplemental Material Supplemental material for this article is available online.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2019.

Keywords

  • Big Five
  • dimensional psychopathology
  • personality disorder
  • personality traits

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