A molecular genetic map was constructed and an electrophoretic karyotype was resolved for Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of spot blotch of barley and wheat. The genetic map consists of 27 linkage groups with 97 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, 31 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers, two polymerase chain reaction amplified markers, the mating type locus (CsMAT), and a gene (VHv1) conditioning high virulence on barley cv. Bowman. These linkage groups covered a map distance of 849 cM. The virulence gene VHv1 cosegregated with six AFLP markers and was mapped on one of the major linkage groups. Fifteen chromosome-sized DNAs were resolved in C. sativus isolates ND93-1 and ND90Pr with contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) electrophoresis combined with telomere probe analysis of comigrating chromosome-sized DNAs. The chromosome sizes ranged from 1.25 to 3.80 Mbp, and the genome size of the fungus was estimated to be approximately 33 Mbp. By hybridizing genetically mapped RFLP and AFLP markers to CHEF blots, 25 of the 27 linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes. The barley-specific virulence locus VHv1 was localized on a chromosome of 2.80 Mbp from isolate ND90Pr in the CHEF gel. The total map length of the fungus was estimated to be at least 1,329 cM based on the map distance covered by the linked markers and the estimated gaps. Therefore, the physical to genetic distance ratio is approximately 25 kb/cM. Construction of a high-resolution map around target loci will facilitate the cloning of the genes conferring virulence and other characters in C. sativus by a map-based cloning strategy.