In order to quantify the ultrastructural changes that occur during cellular differentiation in an "open" type of root cap, we have performed a morphometric analysis of the ultrastructures of calyptrogen, columella, and peripheral cells of the root cap of Cucurbitapepo. The relative volumes of nuclei, nucleoli, and mitochondria decrease as cells move (i.e., differentiate) through the root cap. Before cells are sloughed from the cap, the relative volume of the vacuole increases by 250%. The relative volumes of plastids and plastid starch increase as calyptrogen cells differentiate into columella cells, but decrease as columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells. Dictyosomal volumes increase only as columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells. These results indicate that the five cell types comprising the root cap of C. pepo are each characterized by a unique structure, and that the ultrastructural changes associated with cellular differentiation in root caps are organelle specific. These results are discussed relative to the functions of the various cell types of the root cap.