A multi-analytical methodology of lithic residue analysis applied to Paleolithic tools from Hummal, Syria

Gilliane F. Monnier, Thomas C. Hauck, Joshua M. Feinberg, Bing Luo, Jean Marie Le Tensorer, Heba al Sakhel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lithic residue analysis is traditionally based upon the morphological identification of microresidues preserved on the surfaces of stone tools. In order to improve the reliability of these identifications, we apply multiple techniques beyond morphological description to characterize the residues on stone tools from Hummal, Syria. We first document the residues using visible light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and then characterize them using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy. Our analyses confirm that some of the residues are bitumen. X-ray diffraction analysis of associated sediments is used to identify the other residues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3722-3739
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Archaeological Science
Volume40
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2013

Keywords

  • Confocal Raman microscopy
  • Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
  • Fourier transform infrared microscopy
  • Lithic residue analysis
  • Microscopy
  • Middle Paleolithic
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Syria
  • X-ray diffraction

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