Purpose: To determine the MTD, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), pharmacokinetics, and biologic effects of cixutumumab administered in combination with temsirolimus to children with refractory solid tumors. Experimental Design: Cixutumumab and temsirolimus were administered intravenously once every 7 days in 28-day cycles. Pharmacokinetic and biology studies, including assessment of mTOR downstream targets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, were performed during the first cycle. Results: Thirty-nine patients, median age 11.8 years (range, 1-21.5), with recurrent solid or central nervous system tumors were enrolled, of whom 33 were fully assessable for toxicity. There were four dose levels, which included two dose reductions and a subsequent intermediated dose escalation: (i) IMC-A12 6 mg/kg, temsirolimus 15 mg/m2; (ii) IMC-A12 6 mg/kg, temsirolimus 10 mg/m2; (iii) IMC-A12 4 mg/kg, temsirolimus 8 mg/m2; and (iv) IMC-A12 6 mg/kg, temsirolimus 8 mg/m2. Mucositis was the predominant DLT. Other DLTs included hypercholesterolemia, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, and increased alanine aminotransferase. Target inhibition (decreased S6K1 and PAkt) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted at all dose levels. Marked interpatient variability in temsirolimus pharmacokinetic parameters was noted. At 8 mg/m2, the median temsirolimus AUC was 2,946 ng · h/mL (range, 937-5,536) with a median sirolimus AUC of 767 ng · h/mL (range, 245-3,675). Conclusions: The recommended pediatric phase II doses for the combination of cixutumumab and temsirolimus are 6 mg/kg and 8 mg/m2, respectively.
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