Introduction: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show an increased prevalence of enuresis and other daytime voiding symptoms (DVS). There is also some evidence toward an increased prevalence of enuresis among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but with no data available with respect to DVS or response to medical treatment. The aim of this study was to assess enuresis and DVS, along with treatment outcomes, in children with ASD, to aid urological management. Methods: A retrospective observational study on the incidence of enuresis and other DVS in 671 children with/without ADHD/ASD was performed. Symptomatic improvement ≥50% was required to be considered positive. Complete resolution of symptoms for 3 months after cessation of treatment was considered cure. Results: Symptomatic improvement with desmopressin or anticholinergic treatment was seen in 76% of patients without ADHD/ASD, 85% of patients with ADHD, and 100% of patients with ASD. Cure was seen in 61% of patients without ADHD/ASD, 48% of patients with ADHD, and 50% patients with ASD. Mean time to cure was 9 months in those without ADHD/ASD (N = 319), 10 months in those with ADHD (N = 62), and 8 months in those with ASD (N = 10) (P = 0.69). Conclusion: Despite the small sample size of patients with ASD, our data show a favorable trend toward efficacy of desmopressin and anticholinergic therapy in these children with enuresis and DVS.
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- Pervasive developmental disorder
- Voiding dysfunction