A thorough investigation of the active titanium species in TS-1 zeolite was conducted by in situ UV resonance Raman spectroscopy combined with UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, DFT calculations, and epoxidation experiments. A new titanium species was identified with a characteristic Raman band at 695 cm -1 when excited at the 266 nm laser line. It is shown that the newly found titanium species is active in the epoxidation reactions in addition to the tetrahedrally coordinated titanium species. However, the acidity of the new titanium species could catalyze the ring-opening reactions of the epoxy products. It results in a lower selectivity toward the epoxy products relative to that of the tetrahedrally coordinated titanium species. The side reaction can be suppressed by the addition of a weak basic reagent.
- Raman spectroscopy
- active centers