The cinnamyl phenylpropyl fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures that have similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. A toxicological and dermatological review of these fragrance ingredients is presented. The common characteristic structural element of cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials is an aryl substituted primary alcohol/aldehyde/ester. For high end users, calculated maximum dermal exposures vary from 0.14% to 0.72%; systemic exposures vary from 0.0002 to 0.0280. mg/kg/day. Human dermatological studies show that these materials are not generally irritants or sensitizers at lower exposures from consumer products. Reactions (0.9%) in fragrance sensitive patients were observed with 3-phenyl-1-propanol at 5% in petrolatum. The cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials had low acute toxicity and no significant toxicity in repeat dose oral or dermal toxicity studies. No mutagenic or genotoxic activity in bacteria and mammalian cell line assays was observed. The cinnamyl phenylpropyl alcohol materials participate in the same beta oxidation pathways as their parent cinnamic acid derivatives, including common routes of absorption, distribution, and metabolic detoxification, and exhibit similar toxicological endpoints. Based on the review of available data, it is concluded that these materials would not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, an independent research institute that is funded by the manufacturers of fragrances and consumer products containing fragrances. The authors are all members of the Expert Panel of the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, an independent group of experts who evaluate the safety of fragrance materials.
Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Cinnamyl phenylpropyl
- Fragrance ingredients