Richard Wendell presents a case stating that spiritualities are tied to communal traditions that come under religion. An individual client may not affiliate with a contemporary religion, but it is almost impossible for him to be totally unconnected with the religions of the history. Many cases have taken place where religious professionals have harmed people by offering counseling in areas they were not trained to handle. Wendell calls for the development of expertise and collaboration between therapists and religious professionals in order to help clients face their problems. He also warns that therapists can do harm when they intervene in their client's religious lives for the sake of their emotional lives.