Transcription factors (TFs) influence cell fate by interpreting the regulatory DNA within a genome. TFs recognize DNA in a specific manner; the mechanisms underlying this specificity have been identified for many TFs based on 3D structures of protein-DNA complexes. More recently, structural views have been complemented with data from high-throughput in vitro and in vivo explorations of the DNA-binding preferences of many TFs. Together, these approaches have greatly expanded our understanding of TF-DNA interactions. However, the mechanisms by which TFs select in vivo binding sites and alter gene expression remain unclear. Recent work has highlighted the many variables that influence TF-DNA binding, while demonstrating that a biophysical understanding of these many factors will be central to understanding TF function.
- DNA binding specificity models
- High-throughput binding assays
- Protein-DNA recognition