Adaptation of an Acculturation Scale for African Refugee Women

Crista E. Johnson-Agbakwu, Priscilla Flynn, Gladys B. Asiedu, Eric Hedberg, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Newly-arrived African refugees are a vulnerable group of immigrants for whom no validated acculturation measures exist. A valid measurement tool is essential to understand how acculturative processes impact health and health disparities. We adapted the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire (BIQ) to characterize its reliability among ethnic Somali women residing in Minnesota, and Somali, Somali Bantu, and Burundian women in Arizona. Surveys were administered to 164 adult women. Analyses were conducted along socio-demographic variables of ethnicity, geographic residence, age, and length of time in the United States through t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the modified BIQ. Exploratory factor analyses yielded five subscales: “Speak Native Language”, “Speak English Language”, “Enjoy Native Activities”, “Enjoy American Activities”, and “Desired Ideal Culture”. The subscales of the modified BIQ possessed Cronbach’s α ranging from 0.68 to 0.92, suggestive that all subscales had acceptable to excellent internal consistency. The modified BIQ maintained its psychometric properties across geographic regions of resettled Central and East African refugees.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)252-262
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the Arizona Health Facilities Authority, and technical assistance was provided by the Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Health Systems Development, and the Mayo Clinic Office of Women’s Health. Data analysis was also supported by training funds from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health (NIMHD/NIH), award P20 MD002316 (F. Marsiglia, P.I.) of the Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center, Arizona State University. We are grateful to the many colleagues and community partners without whom this community collaboration would not have been possible.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


  • Acculturation
  • African
  • Biculturalism
  • Refugees
  • Women


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