Background: Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) cancer prevention recommendations is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in whites, but only 1 previous study has reported on this link in African Americans. This study assessed the association between the 2018 WCRF/AICR guidelines and CRC incidence in African Americans (26.5%) and whites (73.5%) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities prospective cohort (n = 13,822). Methods: A total of 368 incident CRC cases (268 among whites and 100 among African Americans) were identified between the baseline (1987) and 2012. A baseline adherence score was created for 7 WCRF/AICR guidelines (each contributing 0, 0.5, or 1 point to the score, with higher scores corresponding to greater adherence). Adherence scores were also categorized as tertiles (0.0-3.0, 3.5-4.0, and 4.5-7.0). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the total cohort and with stratification by race. Results: After adjustments for age, sex, race, center, smoking, education, intake of aspirin, calcium, total calories, diabetes status, and, in women, hormone replacement therapy, greater adherence was associated with decreased CRC risk. The HRs per 1-unit increment in score were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97) for the whole cohort, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.73-1.09) for African Americans, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77-0.99) for whites. Similar associations between higher adherence scores and decreased cancer risk were observed for men and women and for colon cancer but not for rectal cancer. Conclusions: Greater adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations appears to be associated with decreased CRC risk for both African Americans and whites.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study has been funded in whole or in part with federal funds from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services) under contracts HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700003I, HHSN268201700005I, HHSN268201700004I, and HHSN268201700002I. Studies on cancer in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study are also supported by the National Cancer Institute (U01CA164975). This work was additionally supported by P30 CA006973. The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Corrine E. Joshu received support from the Prostate Cancer Foundation.
© 2019 American Cancer Society
- cancer prevention
- colorectal cancer
- physical activity
- prospective cohort
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.