Advanced therapies: Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure

Scott Sakaguchi, Henri Roukoz, David G. Benditt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) refers to the application of multisite ventricular pacing with the goal of normalizing left and right ventricular timing (i.e., resynchronizing) that has been disturbed by heart disease. Current CRT methods are imperfect, but they do represent a major advance in managing systolic heart failure (HF). As an "advanced" therapy, CRT offers the advantages of both being widely available (as opposed to, e.g., ventricular assist devices or heart transplantation) and having abundant data supporting its clinical utility (as opposed to, e.g., the current state of stem cell therapy). Further, to the extent that CRT improves inotropy, it is unique in that, unlike pharmacologic inotropic agents such as dobutamine [1] or milrinone [2], it does not increase-and may decrease-mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCongestive Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation
Subtitle of host publicationClinical, Pathology, Imaging and Molecular Profiles
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9783319445779
ISBN (Print)9783319445755
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017


  • Biventricular pacing
  • CRT
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Coronary sinus leads
  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  • Inotropy
  • Left bundle branch block
  • Left ventricle dyssynchrony
  • QRS duration
  • Systolic heart failure
  • Vagal nerve stimulation
  • Ventricular pacing

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