Reduction of weight in every field is a vital requirement for the improved efficiency and reduced fuel consumption. Mainly in aero and auto industries, composite is the one to meet the above challenges. Polymeric composites are being replaced almost all non-critical metal parts. Nanocomposites are also expected to replace the traditional composites materials in both weight and performance since the mechanical properties of nanoparticles are superior to other metal and traditional composite counterparts. Processes and challenges in different manufacturing methods of polymeric nanocomposites using various nanoscale inclusions, such as nanoclay, graphite, CNT's and other nanoparticles will be summarized in terms of physical properties. Problems related to uniform dispersion of nanoparticles and various fabrication techniques (e.g., melt processing, in-situ polymerization, RTM and VARTM) and characterization techniques for advanced polymeric nanocomposites will be addressed.