Volunteers and volunteer organizations are critical elements in society's response to the HIV epidemic. This article reviews a model of the volunteer process that draws on psychological theory and methodology and incorporates concerns of individual volunteers, volunteer organizations, and society at large. An inventory for assessing the motivations of AIDS volunteers is introduced. The findings from a survey of volunteers working in AIDS organizations around the United States speak to their motivations, their choices of volunteer roles, and their decisions about quitting or continuing service. Based on these findings, a detailed set of recommendations for effective volunteer recruitment, assignment, and retention is offered.