This article reviews syntheses of mesoporous aluminosilicates and aluminum oxides based on surfactant templating methods. The incorporation of aluminum in the silicate frameworks generates acid sites and ion-exchange sites. Both, tetrahedral framework aluminum and octahedral extraframework aluminum can be present, depending on the aluminum precursor used. The aluminum-containing structures tend to be less ordered than their purely siliceous analogs. Dealumination plays a significant role during template removal. Other methods for the synthesis of mesoporous aluminum-containing sieves are based on the structural transformation of kanemite, and on cluster precursors which may be connected by self-condensation or by condensation with silicate bridges. Purely aluminous mesostructures can be prepared with neutral templates or by condensing Keggin-like aluminum clusters in an ordered salt with an anionic surfactant.
- Aluminosilicate mesostructures
- Aluminum oxide mesostructures
- Salt-gel synthesis
- Surfactant templates