To provide a basis for studying the molecular mechanism of pharmacological action of local anesthetics, we carried out a study of the membrane actions of tetracaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, prilocaine and procaine. Fluorescence polarization of 12-(9-anthroyloxy)stearic acid (12-AS) and 2-(9-anthroyloxy)stearic acid (2-AS) were used to examine the effects of local anesthetics on differential rotational mobility between polar region and hydrocarbon interior of synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV) isolated from bovine cerebral cortex, and liposomes of total lipids (SPMVTL) and phospholipids (SPMVPL) extracted from the SPMV. The two membrane components differed with respect to 2 and 12 anthroyloxy stearate (2-AS, 12-AS) probes, indicating that a difference in the membrane fluidity may be present. In a dose-dependent manner, tetracaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, prilocaine and procaine decreased anisotropy of 12-AS in the hydrocarbon interior of the SPMV, SPMVTL and SPMVPL, but tetracaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine and prilocaine increased anisotropy of 2-AS in the membrane interface. These results indicate that local anesthetics have significant disordering effects on hydrocarbon interior of the SPMV, SPMVTL and SPMVPL, but have significant ordering effects on the membrane interface, and thus they could affect the transport of Na+ and K+ in nerve membranes, leading to anesthetic action.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This paper was supported in part by research grant from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF, 91-05-00-19) and the Grant of Research Institute for Oral Biotechnology, Pusan National University (1995–1997).
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Fluorescent probe technique
- Hydrocarbon interior
- Local anesthetic
- Membrane interface
- Rotational mobility