An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of antibodies to Senecavirus A in swine

Cheryl M.T. Dvorak, Zeynep Akkutay-Yoldar, Suzanne R. Stone, Steven J.P. Tousignant, Fabio A. Vannucci, Michael P. Murtaugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Senecavirus A (SVA), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded RNA virus closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus. SVA was originally identified as a cell culture contaminant and was not associated with disease until 2007 when it was first observed in pigs with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease (IVD). Vesicular disease is sporadically observed in swine, is not debilitating, but is significant due to its resemblance to foreign animal diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), whose presence would be economically devastating to the United States. IVD disrupts swine production until foreign animal diseases can be ruled out. Identification and characterization of SVA as a cause of IVD will help to quickly rule out infection by foreign animal diseases. Methods: We have developed and characterized an indirect ELISA assay to specifically identify serum antibodies to SVA. Viral protein 1, 2 and 3 (VP1, VP2, VP3) were expressed, isolated, and purified from E. coli and used to coat plates for an indirect ELISA. Sera from pigs with and without IVD symptoms as well as a time course following animals from an infected farm, were analyzed to determine the antibody responses to VP1, VP2, and VP3. Results: Antibody responses to VP2 were higher than VP1 and VP3 and showed high affinity binding on an avidity ELISA. ROC analysis of the SVA VP2 ELISA showed a sensitivity of 94.2% and a specificity of 89.7%. Compared to IFA, the quantitative ELISA showed an 89% agreement in negative samples and positive samples from 4-60 days after appearance of clinical signs. Immune sera positive for FMDV, encephalomyocarditis virus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus antibodies did not cross-react. Conclusions: A simple ELISA based on detection of antibodies to SVA VP2 will help to differentially diagnose IVD due to SVA and rule out the presence of economically devastating foreign animal diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number50
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s).

Keywords

  • ELISA
  • Immunology
  • SVA
  • SVV
  • Seneca valley virus
  • Senecavirus A
  • Swine
  • Veterinary diagnostics

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