An instructional strategy planning model to improve learning and cognition

Robert D. Tennyson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Developments in cognitive science (e.g., psychology, artificial intelligence, and expert systems) provide a framework to propose an instructional strategy planning model that links knowledge acquisition and employment with specific instructional strategies. The model presented in this article identifies unique computer-based instructional strategies to improve both learning and cognition. Using a meta-learning theory, the storage memory system components of declarative, procedural, and conceptual knowledge are respectively linked to drill and practice, tutorial, and task-oriented simulation strategies. Likewise, for the retrieval memory system components (i.e., differentiation, integration, and creation), the instructional strategies include problem-oriented simulations and self-directed experiences. Each of the instructional strategies are composed of variables and conditions that have been empirically tested and shown to improve specific forms of knowledge acquisition and employment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1988


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