An example of oral basal cell carcinoma is presented originating on the posterior mandibular mucosa and gingiva of a 67-year-old female. Histologically, it featured a multifocal pattern. It recurred eight times in a period of 20 years. Tissue samples of the tumor were evaluated with monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 and were compared with examples of oral mucosa, skin, oral and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, peripheral ameloblastoma, ameloblastoma and cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Only neoplastic basal cells showed positive immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, microdissected neoplastic areas were evaluated for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the PTCH gene with markers D9S303, D9S252 and D9S287. PTCH gene mutations are reported in patients with Gorlin syndrome and sporadic cutaneous BCCs. Loss of one allele was observed with all three markers. Examples of conventional ameloblastomas did not show evidence of LOH. These observations support the inclusion of BCC in the differential diagnosis of appropriate oral mucosal neoplasms. Koutlas IG, Koch CA, Vickers RA, Brouwers FM, Vortmeyer AO. An unusual ostensible example of intraoral basal cell carcinoma.