An Update on Blood-Based Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease Using the SiMoA Platform

Danni Li, Michelle M. Mielke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

The development of blood-based biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology as tools for screening the general population, and as the first step in a multistep process to determine which non-demented individuals are at greatest risk of developing AD dementia, is essential. Proteins that are reflective of AD pathology, such as amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42), tau proteins [total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau)], and neurofilament light chain (NfL), are detectable in the blood. However, a major challenge in measuring these blood-based proteins is that their concentrations are much lower in plasma or serum than in the cerebrospinal fluid. Single molecule array (SiMoA) is an ultrasensitive technology that can detect proteins in blood at sub-femtomolar concentrations (i.e., 10−16 M). In this review, we focus on the utility of SiMoA assays for the measurement of plasma or serum Aβ42, P-tau, T-tau, and NfL levels and discuss future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-82
Number of pages10
JournalNeurology and Therapy
Volume8
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Effort for this work was supported by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Aging grants U01 AG006786, R01 AG049704, and R01 AG059654. No funding was received for the publication of this article. All named authors meet the International Committee of medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval for the version to be published. Danni Li receives research support from NIH and Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Michelle Mielke served as a consultant to Eli Lilly and receives research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Defense, and unrestricted research grants from Biogen. This article is based on previously conducted studies and does not involve any new studies of human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Funding Information:
Effort for this work was supported by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Aging grants U01 AG006786, R01 AG049704, and R01 AG059654. No funding was received for the publication of this article.

Funding Information:
Danni Li receives research support from NIH and Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Michelle Mielke served as a consultant to Eli Lilly and receives research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Defense, and unrestricted research grants from Biogen.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Amyloid-beta
  • Blood biomarkers
  • Neurofilament
  • Single molecule array technology
  • Tau

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