The development of blood-based biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology as tools for screening the general population, and as the first step in a multistep process to determine which non-demented individuals are at greatest risk of developing AD dementia, is essential. Proteins that are reflective of AD pathology, such as amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42), tau proteins [total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau)], and neurofilament light chain (NfL), are detectable in the blood. However, a major challenge in measuring these blood-based proteins is that their concentrations are much lower in plasma or serum than in the cerebrospinal fluid. Single molecule array (SiMoA) is an ultrasensitive technology that can detect proteins in blood at sub-femtomolar concentrations (i.e., 10−16 M). In this review, we focus on the utility of SiMoA assays for the measurement of plasma or serum Aβ42, P-tau, T-tau, and NfL levels and discuss future directions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Effort for this work was supported by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Aging grants U01 AG006786, R01 AG049704, and R01 AG059654. No funding was received for the publication of this article.
Danni Li receives research support from NIH and Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Michelle Mielke served as a consultant to Eli Lilly and receives research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Defense, and unrestricted research grants from Biogen.
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Blood biomarkers
- Single molecule array technology
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article