Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mass-observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

J. Liu, J. Mohr, A. Saro, K. A. Aird, M. L.N. Ashby, M. Bautz, M. Bayliss, B. A. Benson, L. E. Bleem, S. Bocquet, M. Brodwin, J. E. Carlstrom, C. L. Chang, I. Chiu, H. M. Cho, A. Clocchiatti, T. M. Crawford, A. T. Crites, T. de Haan, S. DesaiJ. P. Dietrich, M. A. Dobbs, R. J. Foley, D. Gangkofner, E. M. George, M. D. Gladders, A. H. Gonzalez, N. W. Halverson, C. Hennig, J. Hlavacek-Larrondo, G. P. Holder, W. L. Holzapfel, J. D. Hrubes, C. Jones, R. Keisler, A. T. Lee, E. M. Leitch, M. Lueker, D. Luong-Van, M. McDonald, J. J. McMahon, S. S. Meyer, L. Mocanu, S. S. Murray, S. Padin, C. Pryke, C. L. Reichardt, A. Rest, J. Ruel, J. E. Ruhl, B. R. Saliwanchik, J. T. Sayre, K. K. Schaffer, E. Shirokoff, H. G. Spieler, B. Stalder, Z. Staniszewski, A. A. Stark, K. Story, R. Šuhada, K. Vanderlinde, J. D. Vieira, A. Vikhlinin, R. Williamson, O. Zahn, A. Zenteno

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11 Scopus citations

Abstract

We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev- Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg2 of the XMM-Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥1042 erg s-1) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-biascorrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance > 4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8s significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y500 signal that is (17 ± 9) per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter constraints on these SZE mass-observable relations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2085-2099
Number of pages15
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume448
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 11 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
16Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Santiago, Chile 17Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA 18Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8, Canada 19Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA 20Department of Physics, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA 21Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 22Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA 23Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 24Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085, USA 25Department of Physics, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085, USA 26Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 27Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA 28Physics Department, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA 29School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia 30Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218, USA 31Physics Department, Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA 32Liberal Arts Department, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 112 S Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60603, USA 33Dunlap Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada 34Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4, Canada 35Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 36Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the support of the DFG through TR33 'The Dark Universe' and the Cluster of Excellence 'Origin and Structure of the Universe'. Some calculations have been carried out on the computing facilities of the Computational Center for Particle and Astrophysics (C2PAP). The South Pole Telescope is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. This work is also supported by the US Department of Energy. Galaxy cluster research at Harvard is supported by NSF grants AST-1009012 and DGE-1144152. Galaxy cluster research at SAO is supported in part by NSF grants AST-1009649 and MRI-0723073. The McGill group acknowledges funding from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canada Research Chairs programme, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the support of the DFG through TR33 ‘The Dark Universe’ and the Cluster of Excellence ‘Origin and Structure of the Universe’. Some calculations have been carried out on the computing facilities of the Computational Center for Particle and Astrophysics (C2PAP). The South Pole Telescope is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. This work is also supported by the US Department of Energy. Galaxy cluster research at Harvard is supported by NSF grants AST-1009012 and DGE-1144152. Galaxy cluster research at SAO is supported in part by NSF grants AST-1009649 and MRI-0723073. The McGill group acknowledges funding from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canada Research Chairs programme, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Authors.

Keywords

  • Cosmology: observations
  • Galaxies: clusters: general
  • Galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium

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