Mutations of the tyrosinase gene associated with a partial or complete loss of enzymatic activity are responsible for tyrosinase related oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1). A large number of mutations have been identified and their analysis has provided in‐sight into the biology of tyrosinase and the pathogenesis of these different mutations. Missense mutations produce their effect on the activity of an enzyme by altering an amino acid at a specific site. The location of these mutations in the peptide can be used to indicate potential domains important for enzymatic activity. Missense mutations of the tyrosinase polypeptide cluster in four regions, suggesting that these are important functional domains. Two of the potential domains involve the copper binding sites while the others are likely involved in substrate binding. More critical analysis of the copper binding domain of tyrosinase can be gained by analyzing the structure of hemocyanin, a copper‐binding protein with a high degree of homology to tyrosinase in the copper binding region. This analysis indicates a single catalytic site in tyrosinase for all enzymatic activities.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Pigment Cell Research|
|State||Published - Oct 1994|