Purpose: 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles are an important class of heterocyclic compounds, which play a pivotal role in various pharmaceutical applications. Here, we investigated the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of the derivatives and explored its mechanism of action on EAT cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of the derivatives on EAT and HEK293 cells was assessed by MTT assay. Effect of the derivatives on ALP activity and proliferation was measured. Swiss albino mice transplanted with EAT cells were used as a model system to study the effect of the derivatives in vivo. Inhibition of angiogenesis in mice peritoneum, CAM and Cornea of the rat were studied. Finally, the effects on VEGF gene expression, HIF-1α translocation and cell cycle arrest were determined. Results: The IC50 range for growth inhibition of EAT cells was found to be 140-175 μM. In contrast normal HEK293 cells were resistant to the derivatives at this range. Treatment with derivatives in vivo was demonstrated by the down regulation of VEGF in EAT cells and inhibition of blood vessels formation in mice peritoneum, CAM and cornea of rat, indicating the potent angioinhibitory effect of the derivatives. VEGF promoter-luciferase reporter gene expression analysis showed suppression of VEGF gene expression in vitro. The derivatives proved to be potent antiproliferative agents as shown by FACS analysis and decreased ALP activity. Furthermore, expression of HIF-1α was also down regulated by derivatives by repressing its nuclear translocation. Conclusions: Oxadiazole derivatives are strong bioactive compounds with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential both in vitro and in vivo. We postulate that diminished HIF-1α nuclear presence in oxadiazole treated EAT cells could be responsible for decreased VEGF expression and antiangiogenic effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments The author (AK) thanks University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India, for the Wnancial support. The authors express their sincere gratitude to University of Mysore, Mysore, India for the laboratory facility. There is no conXict of interest among the authors.
- EAT cell
- HEK293 cells
- Oxadiazole derivatives