Although venous thromboembolism is a rare complication of pregnancy, it is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. As many as 40% of asymptomatic women with deep venous thrombosis may indeed have a pulmonary embolism. Therefore, pregnant women with thromboembolic disease, a history of thromboembolic disease, or those who are at increased risk of thromboembolism (mechanical cardiac valve prostheses, antithrombin II, or protein C or S deficient) should receive anticoagulant therapy. The choice of anticoagulant therapy in a pregnant woman as well as the dose and duration will depend on the specific condition being treated. Although anticoagulant therapy is beneficial, it is not without risks to both mother and fetus. This article discusses the use of anticoagulants and thrombolytics in pregnant women.