Antimicrobial peptide P18 markedly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, whereas magainin 2 did not inhibit these activities. P18 dose-dependently reduced nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, with complete inhibition at 20 μg P18 ml -1. In contrast, P18 had no effect on NO production and the expression of iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting P18 selectively inhibits LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in macrophages. An LAL assay showed that P18 has strong LPS-neutralizing activity, indicating that P18 inhibits the inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated macrophages by direct binding to LPS. Collectively, our results indicate that P18 has promising therapeutic potential as a novel anti-inflammatory as well as antimicrobial agent.
- Antimicrobial peptide
- Inducible nitric oxide synthase
- Nitric oxide
- Tumor necrosis factor-α