The kin-cohort design has been proposed as an alternative to traditional case-control and cohort measures to evaluate inherited susceptibility to cancer in population-based studies. Here, we used this design to evaluate inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer associated with APC I1307K using data from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Two techniques were used to compare the incidence of prostate cancer in APC I1307K carriers. First, we compared the incidence of prostate cancer in relatives of mutation carriers and noncarriers using standard techniques for survival analysis. Second, we used the marginal maximum likelihood method for kin-cohort analysis to infer the genotypes in the relatives. We also evaluated APC I1307K in 75 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with prostate cancer from 27 families enrolled in the University of Michigan Prostate Cancer Genetic Study. We observed a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in relatives of APC I1307K carriers, however, this difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence intervals, 0.7-3.4). Similar conclusions were drawn using both techniques for kin-cohort analysis. APC I1307K was found in 7.4% of families genotyped, which is slightly higher than the allele prevalence reported in Ashkenazi Jews in the general population. In addition, we did not observe loss of heterozygosity at APC or a somatic mutation near APC I1307K using microdissected tumor DNA from mutation carriers enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Genetic Study. Overall, the evidence for an association between APC I1307K and prostate cancer is not compelling. APC I1307K is unlikely to play a clinically meaningful role in susceptibility to prostate cancer.