We previously showed rats fed with apiaceous vegetables, but not with their putative chemopreventive phytochemicals, reduced colonic DNA adducts formed by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a dietary procarcinogen. We report here the effects of feeding apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables versus their purified predominant phytochemicals, either alone or combined, on prostate and pancreatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation. In experiment I, male Wistar rats received three supplemented diets: CRU (cruciferous vegetables), API (apiaceous vegetables), and CRU+API (both types of vegetables). In experiment II, rats received three diets supplemented with phytochemicals matched to their levels in the vegetables from experiment I: P + I (phenethyl isothiocyanate and indole-3-carbinol), FC (furanocoumarins; 5-methoxypsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, and isopimpinellin), and COMBO (P + I and FC combined). After 6 days of feeding, PhIP was injected (10 mg/kg body weight) and animals were killed on day 7. PhIP-DNA adducts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In prostate, PhIP-DNA adducts were reduced by API (33%, P < .05), P + I (45%, P < .001), and COMBO (30%, P < .01). There were no effects observed in pancreas. Our results suggest that fresh vegetables and purified phytochemicals lower PhIP-DNA adducts and may influence cancer risk.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Healthy Foods Healthy Lives Institute and by K07 CA128952 from the National Cancer Institute (S.P.T.), and, in part, by P30 CA77598 from the National Institutes of Health, utilizing the Analytical Biochemistry shared resource of the Masonic Cancer Center at the University of Minnesota. We thank Robert Turesky, Scott Simpkins, Peter Villalta, and Brock Matter for technical assistance.
- DNA adducts
- apiaceous vegetables
- cruciferous vegetables
- heterocyclic aromatic amines