Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of dietary fiber fermentation. As such, fiber digestibility is thought to be related to SCFA production. The effects of two concentrations of cereal fiber as wheat bran (WB) and vegetable fiber (VF) on fiber digestibility were examined in 34 free-living volunteers. Five diets consisting of a fiber-free liquid nutrition supplement and quick breads containing either (1) 0 g of fiber, (2) 10 g of WB, (3) 30 g of WB, (4) 10 g of VF, or (5) 30 g of VF were consumed in random order. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was determined. Colonic fluid, collected by in vivo dialysis in 9 subjects, was analyzed for SCFAs by gas chromatography. Digestibility of NDF was greater with WB than with VF ingestion in those 9 subjects, but digestibility was not different with ingestion of both fibers when all 34 subjects were considered. No effect of intake level was seen with either WB or VF. Fiber ingestion increased acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations above those on the 0 g of fiber diet (43%, 31%, and 90%, respectively; p < .0001). Propionate and butyrate concentrations were greater on WB than VF (p < .01); acetate concentrations were similar with both fibers. No correlation between NDF digestibility and SCFA concentrations was observed. Despite differences in origin, chemistry, particle size, and subject transit time, the WB and VF were similar in NDF fermentability. Molar ratios of specific SCFAs were influenced by type of fiber ingested.