Approach and avoidance behaviors have evolved with adaptive constraints common to a plethora of positive and negative goals, respectively. Approach and avoidance systems are linked by contingencies to distinct systems that value positive (gain) and negative (loss) stimuli (e.g., omission of gain results in avoidance). An additional, phylogenetically old, behavioral inhibition system resolves goal conflicts (e.g., approach-avoidance). With this functional and neuropsychological analysis as a foundation, we review the neuroimaging data on transient mental states and more permanent traits (particularly extraversion and neuroticism) linked to approach, avoidance, and conflict. This field is in its infancy and we conclude by discussing theoretical problems that limit our identification of factors and methodological problems, particularly insufficient numbers in imaging samples, that limit the evidential value of most current results.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character|
|Number of pages||25|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2016|
- Behavioral Inhibition System