Purpose The Children’s Oncology Group AAML0631 trial for newly diagnosed pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was a phase III historically controlled trial to determine the survival of patients receiving arsenic trioxide (ATO) consolidation and reduced doses of anthracyclines. Patients and Methods Patients age 2 to 21 years with de novo APL confirmed by PML-RARa polymerase chain reaction were stratified as standard risk (SR) or high risk (HR) on the basis of diagnostic WBC count. All patients received all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during induction, each consolidation course, and maintenance. All patients received two cycles of ATO therapy during consolidation 1, an additional two (SR) or three (HR) consolidation courses that included high-dose cytarabine and anthracycline, and maintenance therapy comprising ATRA, oral methotrexate, and mercaptopurine. Results One hundred one patients (66 SR and 35 HR) were evaluable for outcome. The 3-year overall survival was 94%, and event-free survival (EFS) was 91%. For SR and HR patients with APL, the overall survival was 98% versus 86% (P = .003), and EFS was 95% versus 83% (P = .03), respectively. The EFS for SR patients in AAML0631 was noninferior to that of patients in the AIDA 0493 historical control, which used a significantly higher anthracycline dose and did not include ATO consolidation. Relapse risk for patients in AAML0631 from end consolidation 1 (after ATO treatment) was only 4% at 3 years and did not differ significantly between SR and HR patients. Conclusion ATO consolidation cycles were well tolerated in pediatric patients with APL and allowed significant reduction in cumulative anthracycline doses while maintaining excellent survival and a low relapse risk for both SR and HR patients with APL.
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© 2017 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.