Assessing Brand Origin Recognition Accuracy and its Antecedents in a Developing Country

Fandy Tjiptono, Denni Arli, Theresia Sri Dewi Retno Rosari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The aim of the present study was to examine two main questions regarding Indonesian consumers. First, what are the brand origin recognition accuracy (BORA) scores for both foreign brands and local brands among Indonesian consumers? Second, are socio-economic characteristics (education and income/spending), international experience (international travel and foreign language expertise), and demographic factors (age and gender) related to consumers’ brand origin recognition accuracy? The present research follows BORA procedures in the selection of 88 brands (44 foreign and 44 local brands). Questionnaires were distributed both offline and online, with 138 respondents participating offline and 163 people responding online. The BORA scores for both foreign and local brands among Indonesian consumers were relatively low (28.79% and 53.85%, respectively). BORA was also related to socio-economic characteristics, international experience, and age. In addition, men demonstrated higher BORA levels for foreign brands than women did. Most consumers were unable to differentiate brand origins because of the use of foreign languages for the brand names. Therefore, the foreign branding strategy of using languages of other countries (e.g., English, Chinese, Japanese, and so forth) that have positive images for particular product categories could be effectively employed in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)631-648
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Promotion Management
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • BORA (brand origin recognition accuracy)
  • Indonesia
  • brand origin
  • foreign brands
  • international experience
  • local brands

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