Post-mortem retrieval of canine, cemented femoral components was analysed to assess the performance of these implants in the dog as a model for human total hip replacement (THR). Mechanical testing and radiological analysis were performed to determine the stability of the implant and the quality of the cement. Thirty-eight implants from 29 dogs were retrieved after time intervals ranging from 0.67 to 11.67 years. The incidence of aseptic loosening was 63.2%, much higher than in human patients (6% in post-mortem studies). Failure of the femoral implants began with debonding at the cement-metal interface, similar to that in implants in man. The incidence of aseptic loosening was much lower in bilateral than in unilateral implants. Significant differences were observed for three different designs of implant. While the dog remains the animal model of choice for THR, results from this study provide insight into interspecies differences in the performance of implants. For example, the performance of THR in dogs should be compared with that in young rather than in elderly human patients.