Assessment of the relative performance of a confined impinging jets mixer and a multi-inlet vortex mixer for curcumin nanoparticle production

Shing Fung Chow, Changquan Calvin Sun, Albert Hee Lum Chow

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26 Scopus citations


The relative performance of two specially designed mixers for nanoparticle production, namely, two-stream confined impinging jets with dilution mixer (CIJ-D-M) and four-stream multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM), was evaluated using the model compound, curcumin (CUR), under defined conditions of varying mixing rate and organic solvent. In the absence of turbulent fluctuations, higher mixing rate tended to generate finer particles. Among the three water-miscible organic solvents tested, acetone afforded the smallest particle size and the narrowest particle size distribution. Both mixers were capable of reproducibly fabricating CUR nanoparticles with particle size below 100 nm and high encapsulation efficiency (>99.9%). Specifically, CIJ-D-M yielded nanoparticles with smaller size and polydispersity index while the particles obtained by the MIVM displayed better short-term stability. In addition, CIJ-D-M tended to produce a mixture of irregular nanoaggregates and primary nanoparticles while roughly spherical nanoparticles were generated with the MIVM. The observed particle size and morphological differences could be attributed to the differences in the configuration of the mixing chamber and the related mixing order.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)462-471
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Financial support from the Innovation and Technology Fund ( ITS/306/09 ) of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and The Chinese University of Hong Kong (postgraduate studentship for SFC) is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are due to Prof. Christopher W. Macosko (Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota) and Prof. Robert K. Prud’homme (Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University) for their kind assistance with the refabrication of a CIJ-D-M and an MIVM for the present study at CUHK. The authors also thank Prof. Macosko for his helpful comments and suggestions on the data interpretation and his graduate student, Miss Jing Han, for her assistance with the CIJ-D-M operation.


  • Confined impinging jets with dilution mixer
  • Curcumin
  • Diffusion
  • Flash nanoprecipitation
  • Mixing
  • Multi-inlet vortex mixer
  • Nanoparticles

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