The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders in which accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) leads to progressive tissue and organ dysfunction. In addition to a variety of somatic signs and symptoms, patients with rapidly progressing MPS I (Hurler), II, III, and VII can present with significant neurological manifestations, including impaired cognitive abilities, difficulties in language and speech, behavioral abnormalities, sleep problems, and/or seizures. Neurological symptoms have a substantial impact on the quality of life of MPS patients and their families. Due to the progressive nature of cognitive impairment in these MPS patients, neurocognitive function is a sensitive indicator of disease progression, and a relevant outcome when testing efficacy of therapies for these disorders. In order to effectively manage and develop therapies that address neurological manifestations of MPS, it is important to use appropriate neurocognitive assessment tools that are sensitive to changes in neurocognitive function in MPS patients. This review discusses expert opinions on key issues and considerations for effective neurocognitive testing in MPS patients. In addition, it describes the neurocognitive assessment tools that have been used in clinical practice for these patients. The content of this review is based on existing literature and information from a meeting of international experts with extensive experience in managing and treating MPS disorders.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful to Ismar Healthcare NV for their assistance in the writing of this manuscript, which was funded by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. The expert meeting in Stockholm was also sponsored by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Dr. Mitchell received research support from the Harpur foundation .
This work was supported by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.
- Cognition disorders
- Intelligence tests
- Lysosomal storage diseases