Background/aims: Weight-bearing jump tests measure lower extremity muscle power, velocity, and force, and may be more strongly related to physical performance than grip strength. However, these relationships are not well described in older adults. Methods: Participants were 1242 older men (mean age 84 ± 4 years) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Jump peak power (Watts/kg body weight), force (Newton/kg body weight) at peak power, and velocity (m/s) at peak power were measured by jump tests on a force plate. Grip strength (kg/kg body weight) was assessed by hand-held dynamometry. Physical performance included 400 m walk time (s), 6 m usual gait speed (m/s), and 5-repeated chair stands speed (#/s). Results: In adjusted Pearson correlations, power/kg and velocity moderately correlated with all performance measures (range r = 0.41–0.51; all p < 0.001), while correlations for force/kg and grip strength/kg were weaker (range r = 0.20–0.33; all p < 0.001). Grip strength/kg moderately correlated with power/kg (r = 0.44; p < 0.001) but not velocity or force/kg. In adjusted linear regression with standardized βs, 1 SD lower power/kg was associated with worse: 400 m walk time (β = 0.47), gait speed (β = 0.42), and chair stands speed (β = 0.43) (all p < 0.05). Associations with velocity were similar (400 m walk time: β = 0.42; gait speed: β = 0.38; chair stands speed: β = 0.37; all p < 0.05). Force/kg and grip strength/kg were more weakly associated with performance (range β = 0.18–0.28; all p < 0.05). Conclusions/discussion: Jump power and velocity had stronger associations with physical performance than jump force or grip strength. This suggests lower extremity power and velocity may be more strongly related to physical performance than lower extremity force or upper extremity strength in older men.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The following institutes provide support: the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research under the following grant numbers: U01 AG027810, U01 AG042124, U01 AG042139, U01 AG042140, U01 AG042143, U01 AG042145, U01 AG042168, U01 AR066160, and UL1 TR000128. Additional support was provided by the Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, NIH National Institute on Aging T32-AG000181 (Newman AB), Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics and the Center for Active and Healthy Ageing, University of Southern Denmark (Caserotti P), and in part, by NIH, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program (Harris TB).
The authors are grateful for the contributions of Tue Skallgaard (Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark) for providing engineering expertise for the development of the custom jump analysis software. Results were presented to The 21st International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics World Congress of Gerontology and Geriatrics, July 26, 2017, San Francisco, CA, USA. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Research Group: Administrative Center (Oregon Health & Sciences University): E. Orwoll (Principal Investigator), J. Lapidus (co-Investigator), C. Nielson (co-Investigator), L. Marshall (co-Investigator), C. Pedersen (Project Director), M. Abrahamson, Y. Wang, J. Wiedrick, N. Fino, E. Hooker, J. Nava; Coordinating Center (California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute and University of California, San Francisco): S.R. Cummings (Principal Investigator), D.C. Bauer (co-Investigator), D.M. Black (co-Investigator), P.M. Cawthon (co-Investigator), K.L. Stone (co-Investigator), R. Collins (Project Director), B. Black, T. Blackwell, A. Burghardt, L. Concepcion, S. Ewing, S.L. Harrison, L.Y. Lui, S. Majumdar, C. Navy, N. Parimi, S. Patel, K. Peters, A. Schafer, C. Schambach, A. Schwartz, A. Yu; University of Alabama, Birmingham: J. Shikany (Principal Investigator), C. Lewis (co-Investigator), M. Kilgore (co-Investigator), P. Johnson (Project Director), M. Young (Study Coordinator), N. Webb, S. Felder, C. Collier, K. Hardy; University of Minnesota: K. Ensrud (Principal Investigator), H. Fink (co-Investigator), S. Diem (co-Investigator), J. Schousboe (co-Investigator), B. Taylor (co-Investigator), L. Langsetmo (co-Investigator), S. Potter (Project Director), N. Nelson (Clinic Coordinator), P. Van Coevering (Program Director), K. Jacobson, A. Kats, S. Luthi, K. Moen, E. Penland-Miller, T. Vo; Stanford University: M. Stefanick (Principal Investigator), A. Hoffman (co-Investigator), N. Ellsworth, K. Kent; University of Pittsburgh: J. Cauley (Principal Investigator), J. Zmuda (co-Investigator), E. Strotmeyer (co-Investigator), D. Cusick (Project Director), C. Newman, A. Flaugh, S. Happe; University of California, San Diego: D. Kado (Principal Investigator), E Barrett-Connor (co-Investigator), L Claravall (Project Director), M.L. Carrion-Petersen, P Miller, M. Stephens, and J Smith.
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- Physical function