Red-shanked doucs (Pygathrix nemaeus) are endangered, foregut-fermenting colobine primates which are difficult to maintain in captivity. There are critical gaps in our understanding of their natural dietary habits including consumption of leaves, unripe fruit, flowers, seeds, and other plant parts. There is also a lack of understanding of enteric adaptations, including their unique microflora. To address these knowledge gaps, we used the douc as a model to study relationships between gastrointestinal microbial community structure, diet, and health. We analyzed published fecal samples as well as detailed dietary history from doucs with four distinct lifestyles (wild, semi-wild, semi-captive, and captive) and determined gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA sequencing. A clear gradient of microbiome composition was revealed along an axis of natural lifestyle disruption, including significant associations with diet, health, biodiversity, and microbial function. We identified potential microbial biomarkers of douc dysbiosis, including Bacteroides and Prevotella. Our results suggest a gradient-like shift in captivity causes an attendant shift to severe gut dysbiosis, thereby resulting in gastrointestinal issues.