The expansion of the Universe is understood to have accelerated during two epochs: in its very first moments during a period of 'Inflation' and much more recently, at z < 1, when Dark Energy is hypothesized to drive cosmic acceleration. The undiscovered mechanisms behind these two epochs represent some of the most important open problems in fundamental physics. Most of the processes involved during Inflation impact observations on the very largest spatial scales [1, 2]. Traditionally, these have been accessed through observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). While very powerful, the CMB originates from a 2D surface and the finite number of modes that it contains will largely be measured by experiments over the next decade.1 Observations of large 3D volumes with large-scale structure (LSS) access similar scales and will dramatically increase the number of available modes. For example, LSS observations in the range 2. z. 5 can more than triple the volume surveyed at z. 2, and, together with the sufficiently high galaxy number in this interval, strongly motivates a future spectroscopic survey that exploits this opportunity. In addition, tomography allows mapping the growth of structure with redshift, which provides robust constraints on Dark Energy and neutrino masses while relaxing restrictive assumptions such as a power-law primordial power spectrum . Finally, cross-correlation with external tracers, such as CMB lensing, Intensity Mapping or the Lyman-α forest, immunises the constraints to the systematics that make measurement challenging and further improves the precision through 'sample variance cancellation' [8, 9, 10] and degeneracy breaking.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Mar 21 2019|