In Escherichia coli, the homodimeric Krebs cycle enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (EcIDH) is regulated by reversible phosphorylation of a sequestered active site serine. The phosphorylation cycle is catalyzed by a bifunctional protein, IDH kinase/phosphatase (IDH-K/P). To better understand the nature of the interaction between EcIDH and IDH-K/P, we have examined the ability of an IDH homologue from Bacillus subtilis (BsIDH) to serve as a substrate for the kinase and phosphatase activities. BsIDH exhibits extensive sequence and structural similarities with EcIDH, particularly around the phosphorylated serine. Our previous crystallographic analysis revealed that the active site architecture of these two proteins is almost completely conserved. We now expand the comparison to include a number of biochemical properties. Both IDHs display nearly equivalent steady-state kinetic parameters for the dehydrogenase reaction. Both proteins are also phosphorylated by IDH-K/P in the same ratio (1 mole of phosphate per mole of monomer), and this stoichiometric phosphorylation correlates with an equivalent inhibition of IDH activity. Furthermore, tandem electrospray mass spectrometry demonstrates that BsIDH, like EcIDH, is phosphorylated on the corresponding active site serine residue (Ser-104). Despite the high degree of sequence, functional, and structural congruence between these two proteins, BsIDH is surprisingly a much poorer substrate of IDH-K/P than is EcIDH, with Michaelis constants for the kinase and phosphatase activities elevated by 60- and 3,450-fold, respectively. These drastically disparate values might result from restricted access to the active site cavity and/or from the lack of a potential docking site for IDH-K/P.