Baseline characteristics of participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT)

Richard H. Grimm, Karen L. Margolis, Vasilios Papademetriou, William C. Cushman, Charles E. Ford, Judy Bettencourt, Michael H. Alderman, Jan N. Basile, Henry R. Black, Vincent DeQuattro, John Eckfeldt, C. Morton Hawkins, H. Mitchell Perry, Michael Proschan

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88 Scopus citations

Abstract

Diuretics and β-blockers have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with hypertension in long-term clinical trials. No study has compared newer more costly antihypertensive agents (calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, and α-adrenergic blockers) with diuretics for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease in an ethnically diverse group of middle-aged and elderly hypertensive patients. The study is a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether the incidence of the primary outcome, fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction, differs between treatment initiation with a diuretic versus each of 3 other antihypertensive drugs. Men and women aged ≥55 years with at least 1 other cardiovascular disease risk factor were randomly assigned to chlorthalidone (12.5 to 25 mg/d), amlodipine (2.5 to 10 mg/d), lisinopril (10 to 40 mg/d), or doxazosin (2 to 8 mg/d) for planned follow-up of 4 to 8 years. This report describes the baseline characteristics of the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) participants. A total of 42 448 participants were randomized from 625 sites in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The mean age was 67 years, with 35% aged ≥70 years. Among those randomized, 36% were black, 19% were Hispanic, and 47% were women. The sample includes a high proportion of people with diabetes (36%), patients with existing cardiovascular disease (47%), and smokers (22%). There were no important differences between the randomized treatment groups at baseline. ALLHAT will add greatly to our understanding of the management of hypertension by providing an answer to the following question: are newer antihypertensive agents similar, superior, or inferior to traditional treatment with diuretics?

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-27
Number of pages9
JournalHypertension
Volume37
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Keywords

  • Antihypertensive agents
  • Clinical trials
  • Diuretics
  • Hypertension, essential
  • Lipids

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