Two species of crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) introduced from Europe, Tipula oleracea L. and T. paludosa Meigen, have become established across portions of northeastern United States and present an economic concern to the production sod industry. The presence of both species in northeastern U.S. sod production fields was confirmed in 2009, and on two separate occasions T. paludosa larvae were detected after delivery of sod from producer to consumer. Infestation of production fields poses a threat to the quality of the developing sod product as well as a conduit for human-mediated range expansion of an invasive species. As the unintentional transport of larvae in shipments of sod is a major repercussion, much of the burden from invasive crane fly establishmentsmayfall on the consumer. We propose and explain a core set of best management practices for consideration and adoption by sod producers in northeastern U.S. Crane fly life history and ecology is first discussed as a key element to recognizing and locating infestations in production fields. The scientific rationale behind our recommendations for interventions is then discussed with respect to basic Integrated Pest Management (IPM) elements (monitoring populations, damage thresholds, cultural management, chemical and biological control). The recommendations are further summarized in a checklist with respect to sod production cycle (preharvest, harvest, postharvest). The goal of these practices is the prevention of in-field infestations, the protection of developing sod, the assurance of crane fly-free shipments, and the safeguarding of commercial customers.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018 Entomological Society of America.
- Invasion biology
- Soil insects
- Tipula oleracea
- Tipula paludosa
- Turfgrass pests