Background and Objective: Polymicrogyria is a brain malformation characterized by abnormal cortical lamination, excessive cortical folding, and fusion of the cortical molecular layer. Two distinct bilateral localized forms have been described: bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria, which has proved to be genetically heterogeneous, and bilateral parasagittal parieto- occipital polymicrogyria, which has been described only in sporadic patients. We describe 13 patients with symmetric polymicrogyria of both frontal lobes back to the precentral sulcus: bilateral frontal polymicrogyria (BFP). Methods: Review of clinical records, brain MRI, and EEG results of 13 patients; correlation with other regional polymicrogyrias. Results: The abnormal cortex extended from the frontal poles anteriorly to the precentral gyrus posteriorly and to the frontal operculum inferiorly and was relatively symmetric in all 13 patients. All patients presented with developmental delay and mild spastic quadriparesis, but variably impaired language development (12/13), mental retardation (11/13), and epilepsy (5/13) also occurred. BFP was sporadic in 13 of 13 patients, but 2 of 13 had consanguineous parents. Conclusions: BFP extends the spectrum of the recognized bilateral symmetric regional polymicrogyria syndromes.
- Bilateral frontal polymicrogyria
- Brain malformation syndrome
- Mental retardation