To evaluate the role of interventional radiologic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary complications in children after liver transplantation, the authors reviewed the cases of 58 pediatric patients who underwent transplantation over a 4-year period. In 21 patients suspected of having biliary complications, 31 diagnostic percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographic studies, 19 transhepatic biliary drainages, eight pressure-flow studies, five percutaneous drainages of abdominal fluid collections, 11 balloon dilations, and one basketing procedure were performed. Biliary complications were seen in 38% of allografts, with obstruction being more common than leakage. Complications were most frequent in patients with cholecystojejunostomy reconstructions. Only two children had biliary complications that were thought to be related to arterial compromise. No significant intervention was required in 17% of complications. Percutaneous techniques were associated with a low frequency of significant complications (6%). The authors conclude that interventional radiologic techniques can be used effectively in the evaluation and management of biliary complications in pediatric hepatic transplant recipients.