Age-group analyses were conducted of patients in the prophylactic platelet dose trial (PLADO), which evaluated the relation between platelet dose per transfusion and bleeding. Hospitalized patients with treatment-induced hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 platelet doses: 1.1 × 10 11, 2.2 × 10 11, or 4.4 × 10 11 platelets/m 2 per transfusion, given for morning counts of ≤ 10 000 platelets/μL. Daily hemostatic assessments were performed. The primary end point (percentage of patients who developed grade 2 or higher World Health Organization bleeding) was evaluated in 198 children (0-18 years) and 1044 adults. Although platelet dose did not predict bleeding for any age group, children overall had a significantly higher risk of grade 2 or higher bleeding than adults (86%, 88%, 77% vs 67% of patients aged 0-5 years, 6-12 years, 13-18 years, vs adults, respectively) and more days with grade 2 or higher bleeding (median, 3 days in each pediatric group vs 1 day in adults; P < .001). The effect of age on bleeding differed by disease treatment category and was most pronounced among autologous transplant recipients. Pediatric subjects were at higher risk of bleeding over a wide range of platelet counts, indicating that their excess bleeding risk may be because of factors other than platelet counts. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00128713.