Patients with hip or pelvic fractures experience significant blood loss as a result of the fracture and from the surgery that subsequently is performed. The emergent and unplanned nature of fracture surgery precludes the use of preoperative blood donation and the optimization of chronic medical problems. Blood transfusion frequently is required to maintain adequate tissue O2 delivery in these injured patients. However, the administration of allogeneic blood causes other problems, including a well documented increase in the risk of infectious complications. Perioperative measures to minimize blood loss such as hypotensive anesthesia and red blood cell salvage are important, but often are inadequate to prevent the need for blood transfusion. Recently, erythropoietin therapy has been shown to stimulate hematopoiesis in patients with hip fractures. The authors discuss their experience with blood loss management in these patients with hip injuries, including aggressive Fe replacement therapy and the use of recombinant human erythropoietin.